Bayaguana is a municipality of the Monte Plata province in the Dominican Republic. As of the Dominican Republic's 2002 census, the municipality had a total population of 33,122 inhabitants, of which 19,351 resided in urban areas and 13,771 in rural areas. Bayaguana was founded in 1606, when Spain resettled colonists from the northern and western part of Hispaniola closer to Santo Domingo. Spanish colonists from La Yaguana and Bayajá were resettled in the town. The economy is centered around cattle-ranching and pineapple and rice farming.